What Rules Did the Taliban Enforce
Non-Muslim minorities must wear their own badge or sew a yellow cloth on their dress to distinguish themselves from the Muslim-majority population. Just like what the Nazis did with the Jews.  On January 28, 2019, Taliban officials in Parwan province abducted and detained 49 teachers until the community elders negotiated their release two days later. Farid Tanha, “Seized 2 days ago, Taliban fire parwan teachers,” Pajhwok, January 31, 2019, www.pajhwok.com/en/2019/01/31/seized-2-days-ago-taliban-release-parwan-teachers, (accessed April 10, 2020). United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, Afghanistan: Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict 2019, pp. 26-27, unama.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/afghanistan_protection_of_civilians_annual_report_2019_-_22_february.pdf (accessed February 20, 2020).  United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, “Grav concern about accounts of Taliban miss-treatment of detainees,” May 26, 2019, unama.unmissions.org/un-grave-concern-about-accounts-taliban-ill-treatment-detainees (accessed April 15, 2020). In some districts, Taliban authorities have threatened teachers and principals to work in girls` schools where they have banned them, especially if the teachers come from state-controlled areas. One teacher described what happened when the Taliban captured most of the area around a school in Wardak that was in a government-controlled area: “The principal, A.M., was taken away by the Taliban after his school closed. He was detained for 10 to 15 days because he ran a girls` school in late 2019.  This divided state and the prospect of a peace deal have raised a number of crucial questions: What is life like under the Taliban regime right now? And what does this say about the protection of fundamental human rights after the signing of a peace agreement?  Antonio Giustozzi and Adam Baczko, “The Politics of the Taliban`s Shadow Judiciary, 2003–2013,” Central Asian Studies, 1, 2014, pp.
199-224, spire.sciencespo.fr/hdl:/2441/8b6otjcpe8m2pij8uh80ge3h5/resources/2014-baczko-taliban-shadow-judiciary-central-asian-affairs-1-2.pdf (accessed May 12, 2020). Journalists say some of the rules are vague and open to interpretation. In 1996, when the Taliban conquered Kabul and proclaimed the creation of an Islamic emirate, Taliban leader Mullah Omar ordered that the provision of education to girls be “temporarily suspended.”  The decree also applied to the 4,000 women who were studying at Kabul University at the time.  The application of the decree was generalized, but not absolute; NGOs have negotiated with the Taliban to run primary schools for boys and girls, usually outside large urban areas, and urban activists have run small secret schools.  The suspension of girls` education was only lifted when the US invasion overthrew the Taliban government in late 2001. The Taliban have assured women of their rights “within the framework of Islamic law,” but what that means remains unclear. Afghanistan`s 2004 constitution, which followed Ghani`s government, included a preamble that the nation`s laws would not violate Islam, but the Taliban criticized them for trying to reconcile “Islamic principles with the liberal world order and the fact that it was written and anchored under what they believe to be a hegemonic West.” Kakar said. who is also the founder of the Afghan Eye. development-environment/one-land-two-rules-3-delivering-public-services-in-insurgency-affected-dasht-e-archi-district-in-kunduz-province/ (accessed January 24, 2020). In Helmand, the Taliban`s application of a dress code has also reportedly become stricter in the northern districts as their control over the region has increased. A resident of Gereshk described the restrictions imposed on any clothing similar to that worn by state security forces: On other fundamental governance issues, the Taliban have not developed a coherent policy, but a set of reflective and reactive practices. Although they have reversed some harsh measures from the past and communities have managed to resist some restrictions, this has not changed the fact that, in most areas, there are few opportunities for communities to contact Taliban officials to file complaints.
Taliban restrictions and abuses against women include: 1- Complete ban on women`s work outside the home, which also applies to teachers, engineers and most professionals. Only a few doctors and nurses are allowed to work in some hospitals in Kabul. 2- Complete prohibition of the activity of women outside the home, unless they are accompanied by a mahram (close male relative such as father, brother or husband). 3- Prohibition for women to deal with male traders. 4- Prohibition of the treatment of women by male doctors. 5- Prohibition for women to study in schools, universities or other educational institutions. (The Taliban turned girls` schools into religious seminaries.) 6- Require women to wear a long veil (burqa) that covers them from head to toe. 7. Flogging, beatings and verbal abuse of women who are not dressed according to Taliban rules or women who are not accompanied by a mahram. 8- Whip women in public because they do not have their ankles covered.
9- Public stoning of women accused of having sex outside of marriage. (A number of lovers are stoned to death under this rule.) 10- Prohibition of the use of cosmetics. (Many women with painted nails have had their fingers cut off). 11- Prohibition for women to speak or shake hands with non-Mahram men. 12- Prohibition for women to laugh out loud. (No stranger should hear a woman`s voice.) 13- Prohibition for women to wear high-heeled shoes that would make noise when walking. (A man should not follow in a woman`s footsteps.) 14- Prohibition for women to drive in a taxi without mahram. 15. Prohibition of the presence of women on radio, television or in public gatherings of any kind. Art. 16 – Prohibition for women to play sports or to enter a sports center or sports club.
17- Prohibition for women to ride a bike or motorcycle, even with their mahrams. 18- Prohibition for women to wear colorful clothes. In Taliban terms, these are “sexually attractive colors.” 19- Prohibition for women to gather for festive occasions such as Eid or for recreational purposes. 20- Prohibition for women to wash their clothes near rivers or in a public place. 21- Change of all place names, including the word “women”. For example, “Women`s Garden” has been renamed “Spring Garden”. 22- Prohibition of the appearance of women on the balconies of their apartments or houses. 23- Mandatory painting of all windows so that women cannot be seen from outside their home. 24- Prohibition for male tailors to take measures for women or to sew women`s clothing. 25- Prohibition of public baths for women. 26- Prohibition for men and women to travel on the same bus. Public buses were now called “men`s only” (or “women only”).
27- Prohibition of flared (wide) trouser legs, even under a burqa. 28- Prohibition to photograph or film women. 29. Prohibition of images of women printed in newspapers and books or hung on the walls of homes and shops. In addition to the above restrictions for women, the Taliban have: – Ban on listening to music, not only for women, but also for men. – Ban on watching movies, television and videos for all. – Forbidden to celebrate the traditional New Year (Nowroz) on March 21. The Taliban declared the holiday un-Islamic. – Labor Day disavowed (May 1) because it is considered a “communist” holiday. – Ordered that all persons with non-Islamic names change them to Islamic names.
– Forced haircuts on young Afghans. – Ordered that men be allowed to wear Islamic clothing and a cap. – Ordered that men do not shave or cut their beards, which should grow long enough to protrude with a fist bent at the end of the chin. – Ordered that all people participate in prayers in mosques five times a day. – Prohibition of keeping pigeons and playing with birds and description as non-Islamic. Offenders are detained and birds are killed. Hang gliding was also stopped. – Ordered all spectators, while encouraging the athletes, to sing Allah-o-Akbar (God is great) and not to applaud.
– Ban on certain games, including hang gliding, which is “anti-Islamic” according to the Taliban. – Anyone who wears offensive literature will be executed. Anyone who converts from Islam to another religion will be executed. – All boys must wear turbans. They say, “No turban, no education.” Non-Muslim minorities must wear their own badge or sew a yellow cloth on their dress to distinguish themselves from the Muslim-majority population. Just like what the Nazis did with the Jews. – Prohibition of the use of the Internet by ordinary Afghans and foreigners. And so on.  Kate Clark and Jelena Bjelica, “One Land, Two Rules (1): Service delivery in insurgent-affected areas, an introduction,” December 6, 2018, www.afghanistan-analysts.org/en/reports/economy-development-environment/one-land-two-rules-1-service-delivery-in-insurgent-affected-areas-an-introduction/ (accessed April 22, 2020).
The Taliban also monitor men`s beards and, in some cases, have imposed harsh penalties on offenders. A former Gereshk tribal described their application of this rule:  Azam Ahmed, “Taliban Justice Gains Favor as Official Afghan Courts Fail,” New York Times, January 31, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/02/01/world/asia/taliban-justice-gains-favor-as-official-afghan-courts-fail.html (accessed April 25, 2020). . . .
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