When Did India Sign Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement, adopted by the 196 parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 12 December 2015 at COP21, is currently undergoing a national ratification process. The Article 21 clause states that the Paris Agreement will enter into force once at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have ratified the agreement. The world`s largest emitters, the United States and China, ratified the agreement together in September 2016 at their meeting on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Hangzhou, China. Their signatures brought more than 30% of global emissions to the ratification process. Suddenly, the entry into force of the Paris Agreement (30 days after compliance with the 55/55 rule) became feasible as early as this year. This would be much faster than most other multilateral agreements between adoption at an international conference and entry into force. The current number of 61 small and medium-sized issuers that have already completed their national ratification procedures has risen to 48 per cent. “This is a moment in history. Today, you are signing a new alliance with the future,” Ban said, adding, “We are in a race against time.” Under the Paris Agreement, India has committed to reducing the greenhouse gas emissions intensity of its gross domestic product from 33% to 35% by 2030, increasing electricity capacity for non-fossil fuels from 28% in 2015 to 40%, and significantly increasing forest cover to reduce carbon dioxide.
As of November 2020, 194 states and the European Union had signed the agreement. 188 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified or acceded to the Convention, including China and India, the countries with the 1st and 3rd countries. the largest CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    The 197 members of the UNFCCC have signed or acceded to the Paris Agreement. The Indian government had announced its intention to sign the agreement on April 22 through a statement from the Ministry of Agriculture on April 20. According to the statement, the decision to sign the agreement by the Union`s Environment Minister, Prakash Javadekar, was approved in New York on April 22 by the Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. “India is committed to a strong and sustainable climate agreement based on the principles and provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the agreement addresses all of India`s key concerns and expectations,” the statement said. The agreement was signed by 171 countries, including the United States, beating the previous record of 119 signatures set when the Law of the Sea was signed on opening day in Montego Bay in 1994. These signatures are the first step towards the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. It should be noted that the signing of the agreement is an intention of ratification and not the ratification itself. The agreement comes into force 30 days after at least 55 countries, which account for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, submitted their instruments of ratification to the UN Secretary-General.
About 15 countries are expected to present their own instruments of ratification on April 22, raising hopes that the pact will enter into force well before the 2020 deadline agreed at the Paris talks. The Paris Agreement officially entered into force on 4 November 2016. Other countries continued to become parties to the Convention as they had completed their national approval procedures. To date, 195 Contracting Parties have signed the Convention and ratified 189. More information on the Paris Agreement and the status of ratification is available here. One of the main objectives of the agreement is to limit the increase in global average temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius and to pursue a stricter limit of 1.5 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial temperature levels. With its ratification by the European Union, the agreement received enough contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. India joined 170 other countries in signing the Paris Agreement on climate change in New York on April 22. The agreement was the result of a consensus of 195 countries over the 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21), following talks in Paris in December last year. The high-level signing ceremony took place at the United Nations (UN) Headquarters and was convened by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement. Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar signed the agreement in the UN General Assembly Hall at a high-level ceremony hosted by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. The ceremony took place in the presence of heads of government, ministers, business leaders and artists. With 171 nations, the climate agreement signing ceremony was the record for the most countries to sign an international agreement in one day, which had already been established in 1982, when 119 countries signed the Convention on the Law of the Sea. In her meeting with Kerry on Tuesday, Indian Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman stressed the need for developed countries to deliver on their annual pledges of $100 billion to finance developing countries so they can take meaningful action to combat global warming. The agreement obliges countries to set their own national targets from 2020. India had announced in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) that it would reach about 40% of the cumulative installed electricity capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. The INDC also included a commitment to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 through afforestation by 2030. It is estimated that the cost of the INDC will reach up to $2.5 trillion (at current prices) by 2030.
The country has already introduced a higher share of coal and this year created a National Clean Environment Fund, which is dedicated to clean energy production and clean climate action. Germany can support India`s serious climate engagement by strengthening India`s domestic political action through enhanced bilateral cooperation. Existing bilateral agreements, such as the German-Indian Solar Alliance, offer many opportunities for India to embark on low-carbon development. Solar initiatives, in particular, can build on existing measures, but to reach the goal of 100 GW of solar energy by 2022, a lot of additional capacity needs to be installed. Germany can certainly help India anchor solar energy through the right information, know-how and technologies. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  According to Article 28, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States is November 4, 2020, with the agreement having entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. .
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